A toilet is a sanitation fixture used for the disposal of human waste. They are often found in a room called a bathroom or in an outhouse. There are many types of toilets mainly being: flush, dry, or chemical. They also are found in two different styles, sitting or squatting. Flush toilets, the most common type, use water to flush away waste and are usually connected to a septic tank or a sewer. Dry toilets, for example pit latrines and composting toilets, require little or no water. The waste is removed manually or composted. Chemical toilets can be used in mobile and temporary solutions where there is no access to sewerage. Ancient civilizations used toilets attached to simple flow water sewage systems included those of the Indus Valley Civilization and also those of the Romans and Egyptians.
Although a precursor to the flush toilet system which is widely used nowadays was designed in 1596 by John Harrington, such systems did not come into widespread use until the late nineteenth century. Thomas Crapper was one of the early makers of flush toilets in England. Many infectious diseases, including cholera and diarrhea, can be largely prevented when effective sanitation systems are in place. Hygienic toilets are one important piece of the overall sanitation system.
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