Linguistics is defined as "the scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics."
As a species, a major part of our evolution was the way we communicated. It is estimated that early man began verbal communication somewhere between 30,000 and 100,000 years ago. This proved useful for alerting others when danger was near, and sharing information like how to make tools ensured survival. As our use of technology grew, so did our need to share information. Over time, writing systems developed to help keep up with business transactions and accounting. Writing is the single thing that separates pre-history from history, and many different languages with their own diverse writing systems appeared all over the world due to geographical separation.